Construction on the Seed Vault started in 2006 and the island was specifically chosen.
The vault is 120 metres inside of a sandstone mountain on Spitsbergen Island. The Island has little, to no, tectonic activity and is comprised of permafrost. The Vault is 130 metres above sea level so if the ice caps melt, the vault will not be flooded. In the case of climate change, war, nuclear fallout, the seeds and their storage facility will remain undisturbed.
The power is supplied by locally sourced coal. If the supply is interrupted, the vault will remain cold for several weeks due to the permafrost. It is estimated that the majority of the inventory will remain stable and viable for hundreds, if not thousands of years in the vault, regardless of outside circumstances.