Part of the reason why surgery in these days was such a sketchy ordeal was because of the lack of anesthesia. If you were getting surgery, you’d just have to strap in and get ready for the pain. One method they did use from time to time was a “potion” called Dwale. It consisted of: Opium, briony, henbane, hemlock juice, lettuce juice, vinegar, and the gall of a castrated boar. There was heavy risk involved, because it could send the patient into such a deep sleep that they eventually just stop breathing.